1902 – Clarence Léon Delachaux forms an industrial company dedicated to cable car infrastructure, which later goes on to build a plant in Paris to sustain its diversification into aluminothermic welding and conductor bars.
1932 – Oscar Max Bernuth founds the Elastic Rail Spike Corporation Inc to sell spike fastenings in North and South America. Within 3 years, four million rail spikes are manufactured in Pittsburgh Steel Mills for the New York Central Railroad.
1937 – Elastic Rail Spike Company forms to distribute elastic spikes for timber sleepers in the UK, quickly becoming a global exporter. A plant is built in Worksop a few years later, and this business would eventually change its name to Pandrol in 1972.